The great similarity between Matera and the far Jerusalem was the reason why Pierpaolo Pasolini decided ,in 1964, to film in our town some of the most important scenes of his movie: The Gospel according to St. Matthew. Pasolini was not the only one who chose Matera as the location for a movie, is also important to remember: Lattuada, Wertmuller, Taviani, Tornatore, Rosi, Lizzani, etc. Matera’s origins come from Prehistory; its inhabitants have lived in houses dig in the rocks for centuries. The earliest people were nomadic shepherds who created small villages. Among the archeologists, the most prominent figure for Matera is Domenico Ridola to whom the National Archeological Museum has been dedicated. Thanks to his researches, he discovered that the first housing unit of Matera was an hill called Civita. Hidden in the underground cavities of the old Matera there are the testimonies of Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Barbaric, Saracenic,Longobardic’s presences as well as Christian sepulchres dig in the rocks, and we cannot forget the important wake of the Templars.